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Literatür

MEYDAN LAROUSSE – Büyük Lugat ve Ansiklopedi

SABAH Gazetesi Yayınları – 8. Cilt


Sayfa: 117-118


“GRAFOLOJİ.....Geniş anlamıyla grafoloji, .........herhangi bir kimsenin karakterini, yazısını inceleyerek ortaya çıkarma sanatıdır.”


“GRAFOMETRE.....Eski yerölçümü aleti; planların yapımında, açıların ölçülmesinde kullanılan bir çeşit yerölçümü gönyesi.”



QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS – A Lawyer’s Handbook


Jay LEVINSON


Sayfa: 56


“Very simply, graphology is not Questioned Documents. The purpose of graphology is to determine the character of the writer; the purpose of a questioned document examination is to determine the identity of the writer....... Under no circumstance should a graphologist be considered an expert witness on questioned document matters.”


FORENSIC HANDWRITING IDENTIFICATION – Fundamental Concepts and Principles

Ron N. MORRIS

Sayfa: 225

“There are some people who study handwriting in an attempt to determine the writer’s personality or character, a task not entered into by the Forensic Document Examiner. Individuals who study handwriting for this purpose are usually referred to as ‘graphoanalysts’, and their work ‘graphology’ or ‘graphoanalysis’. Graphology is defined as: ‘...the study of handwriting, esp. When regarded as yielding clues to the writer’s character’ (Random 1992)” 


The Scientific Examination of Documents – Methods and Techniques

David ELLEN

Sayfa: 5

There is, therefore, a problem for those who require a comparison of handwriting and need to choose an expert to assist them. There is also some confusion between those practising graphology, which aims to assess the personality of the writer, and those who work in forensic handwriting examination. The confusion is not helped by some graphologists who erroneously appear to see no difference between the two disciplines. Perhaps the term 'handwriting expert' is one cause of the confusion in that it can be applied to both areas.” 


SCIENTIFIC EXAMINATION OF QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS

Ordway HILTON

Sayfa: 16-17

Graphology.The art of attempting to interpret the character or personality of an individual from his handwriting; also called graphoanalysis.”


QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS - In: Eckert WG (ed.) “Introduction to Forensic Sciences”

William H. STORER

Sayfa: 161

“People who claim skill in identifying personality traits by studying a writer’s handwriting are called graphologists or graphoanalysts. Forensic document examiners do not engage in personality identification via a study of handwriting.

Graphologists are not forensic document examiners, although some graphologists claim to be. Some graphologists and other would-be document examiners who have read a few standard questioned document texts and who have attended some lectures boldly hire out as forensic document examiners, a more lugrative vocation than graphology.  But their exaggerated credentials are poor imitations of the appropriate credentials recognized by the American Board of Forensic Document Examiners.

American Board of Forensic Document Examiners resmi web sitesi:

http://www.abfde.org/fde.htm
 


“Is graphology the same as forensic document examination?

Graphology or graphoanalysis attempts to predict character traits from handwriting examination. Forensic document examination involves the analysis and comparison of questioned documents with known material in order to identify, whenever possible, the author or origin of the questioned document. Some graphologists call themselves handwriting analysts or document examiners and are therefore confused with FDEs. In U.S. v. Bourgeois 950 F 2d 980 (5th Cir. 1992), the court rejected the testimony of a proffered handwriting examiner, in part, because his training was completed through a correspondence school and strongly emphasized graphoanalysis. But it also pointed out that the witness was not certified by the ABFDE.”

 

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